On April 7, 2021, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology disclosed the “Intelligent Network Auto Production Enterprise and Product Access Management Guide” (trial) (Draft for Comment), document article 1 pointed out: “For the application access, there is a conditional automatic driving , Highly automatic driving functions of intelligent network automobile production enterprises and their products, formulated this guide. “The” Conditional Automatic Driving “is based on the” Automobile Driving Automation Section “standard released in March last year in March last year.
“Intelligent Net Car Products” “Intelligent Network Auto Products should automatically detect driving automation system failure and whether to meet design operation conditions, and can take risk mitigation measures to achieve the smallest risk”, “and seventh” in dynamic driving tasks If the driver is involved, the capabilities of the driver should evaluate the driving task “, which are for L3.
Nowadays, there are many people in the car enterprise and automatic driving company, but maybe few people noticed that the so-called L3 is (or already) being “redefined”.
On March 9, 2020, the official website of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology issued the “Automobile Driving Automation Section” Recommended National Standard Note, which specifies the grading of automobile driving automation. Publication deadline April 9, 2020, is scheduled to be implemented on January 1, 2021.
In May 2020, I wrote this article after carefully studying a lot of regulatory policies on “L3-level automatic driving” in China, but very unfortunately, there were many people in the public on the spot. Under the atmosphere of “L3 mass production, this article is completely rational combined policy has not been successfully issued because” does not match the main melody “.
In March of this year, when the so-called “L3” production of Honda, some misleading appeared again.
Now, this article written in a year is still outdated, especially, many of the information remaining in Chinese media, so I decided to issue it after being slightly modified.
The main points:
1. “L3 automatic driving ability” on the mass production car on the three countries in Han, is not the same concept with “L3” under SAE standard. The biggest difference is that the responsible subject after the accident is different.
2, facing the L3, Japan’s official attitude is incomparable – I hope that the manufacturers of the country can seize this opportunity, and they don’t want them to carry too much pressure; encourage consumers to try, and afraid that he is too bold.
3. In the “Automobile Driving Automation Section” of the China Industry and Information Technology, there is a security officer or remote control L4 is considered “L3”.
4. Under the standard of SAE, only L4 vehicles require “risk mitigation strategy”; and in the automatic driving grading standard of the Chinese version, L3 needs to increase “risk mitigation strategy”, visible, China standard is strict than SAE standard Strictly harsh.
5. As early as 2017, Li Xingyu, who is the Skyline Business Director, mentioned in many occasions: Automatic driving technology is divided according to application scenarios, more valuable than graded. After entering 2020, the ideals, Wei came, Xiaopeng and other car companies also used similar standards. NOA is still NOP, which is divided according to application scenarios.
6. Overall, the guiding ideology of the future L3 automatic driving technology in the future can be summarized as “high-speed assistant, low speed alternative”.
7. Selling a car company selling a car to consumers, in the market promotion phase, you should explain what the “L3” of your home is meaningful, which is necessary for users to specify and reduce the necessary premise of related accidents.
The L3 mentioned in the automatic driving industry has been the default is the L3 under SAE definition, that is, in a particular scene, the driving task is continuously implemented by the automatic driving system, but given that the system is not perfect, the driver needs to do it anymore. Preparation of the takeover. L3 that meets this definition has been full of controversy.
On the surface, the most important obstacle to L3 mass production is “law is not allowed”; but in fact, after the safety accident, the responsibility is to bear, is the biggest obstacle. Therefore, to achieve the mass production of L3, first, you need to redefine “What is L3”.
In February and March 2020, the “Smart Automobile Innovation Development Strategy” issued by the Ministry of Development and Reform Commission, issued the “Car Driving Automation Section” issued by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology officially recognized the “L3” product form of controversial “L3”. Before the Chinese government, Japan and South Korea have also issued some policies and regulations that support L3 automatic driving mass production.
After careful combing, I found that L3, Japan, Han, three countries, and Audi said L3, not the same concept, the most critical is that the owner of the accident is very different. Among them, Japan and South Korea’s laws have clearly stated that the driver is the first responsible person after the L3 automatic driving.
In China, although the product definition of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology did not explicitly mention the issue of driving responsibility, several major cars have been renamed to the product, and the responsible subject is still the driver. It is particularly worth noting that L3 under China’s standard will differentiate into two directions of “high-distribution version L2” and “quasi-L4”.
SAE standard and Audi A8
In order to reduce the dysfunction of 2018 Audi A8 (once considered to be “first mass production L3”), Germany issued a “Article 8 of Road Traffic Law” in May 2017. The amendment stipulates that under high-speed traffic jams, as long as the speed is not more than 60 kilometers, the driver can detach from the steering wheel. But Germany does not cause the effects of other countries. If the Audi A8 automatic driving capability is limited to L2, according to the British law. And, in the end, due to a decree of the United Nations Economic Commission, Audi A8’s L3 automatic driving technology has not landed in Germany.
In May 2018, before the listing of the United States, the automatic driving function of Audi A8 was also reduced – only the lane remained, adaptive cruise, lateral anti-collision, blind spot monitoring and other most basic ADAS function, still stayed L1 level.
These cars are still equipped with ZFAS processors and laser radar, but hardware such as cameras, capacitive sample touch steering wheels, and brake redundancy are not mounted. This means that even the US law is allowed, Audi cannot directly upgrade some vehicles from L1 to L3 by upgrading software OTA upgrades.
The reason, Audi said “unable to get legal for the United States.”
However, this is only a surface reasons, and the reason is that the technical form of L3 is considered “anti-humanity”, and its “anti-humanity” has caused legal responsibility to define:
Under SAE standard, the L3 automatic driving system can not only liberate the driver’s hands, but also liberate the driver’s eyes, such as Audi A8 allows the driver to read books / mobile phone at a speed of less than 60 km / h. Wait; but the system did not liberate the driver’s brain (attention).
Because the L3 system is not perfect. After encountering the extreme working conditions that it cannot be copened, the system will send a shipment to the driver, and the driver must have a short time after the takeover reminder (Audi A8 regulations) It is 10 seconds) intervention. In actual operation, this requirement will encounter two challenges:
1. The driver’s quality is OK, there is a strong sense of rules, he is willing to abide by the “L3 use specification”, but the stronger the technical ability of the system, the driver’s trust in the technology, and thus the more relaxed, and then the more dangerous It is not necessary to make a timely and appropriate reaction to the system’s takeover reminders.
This has had a profound lesson in the aviation field.
The aircraft achieved automatic driving equivalent to L3 under SAE standard for decades ago, and the survey of several air crashs over the past few decades has found that the automatic driving capacity of the aircraft has caused the pilot in most cases. Things can be done, thereby causing its driving skills to degenerate. Therefore, when the danger is suddenly coming, the pilot either does not have time to take over, or the operation error after the shock is taken.
In the automatic driving vehicle, L4 in the test phase is equivalent to L3 under SAE standard, and its safe driver is equivalent to the driver on L3. Therefore, observing the behavior of these safe drivers will help us understand the performance of the driver of L3 in real scene.
When the author used the L4-level automatic driving vehicle in China, it was found that the engineers who were temporarily served as a safe driver were unhappy because the system’s driving ability is not bad. The author has been worried that when the danger suddenly falls, can they react?
It is precisely because of this concern, Toyota is ambiguously ambiguous. On the one hand, Toyota plans to launch L3 mass production during the 2020 Summer Tokyo Olympics. On the other hand, Gill Pratt, president of Toyota Research Institute (TIR), also is as difficult as L4. ”
Gill Pratt said: “To ensure safety, L3 must leave the driver for 10 seconds take over time, the problem is that in the city / suburban environment, it is difficult to predict the next 10 seconds; L3 is smart to Treat this situation, it is better to upgrade to L4. ”
Audi, in order to ensure the attention of the driver, they have considered a lot of measures to limit the “indulgence”. These measures include: Whether the tablet and smartphone can only be used in the case of connecting with the car so that the car can be remotely closed remotely when switching. But each participant has not reached a consensus on these details.
2. The driver on the L3 mass production may be a person lacking rule awareness, knowing that the automatic driving system is not 100% reliable, but he still is lucky.
This means that whenever the auto enterprise doesn’t liberate the brain in the user’s manual, you must take over the car at any time “, but the user will still use the limit of dancing. For example, it is deliberately not taken over when the system reminds him.
Tesla has already said that the automatic driving level is only L2. The driver is the main body of driving, but still has so many drivers to use his car “L4”, which causes catastrophic consequences. This is enough to explain that non-reliable users are real, and there are many quantities.
What is more trouble is that the L3 system is stronger than L2 due to automatic driving ability, so the trust of the driver will also be higher, in turn, the driver’s “non-reliable” probability will rise. An accident caused by a discrete driver is enough to destroy countless “unknown people” to L3 confidence. Another problem associated with the non-reliable row of the takeover paradox and the driver is: The responsibility dispute after the accident.
According to the definition of SAE on L3, the first driving responsibility body is the automatic driving system, but if the accident occurs after the human driver takes over, the human driver has a responsible subject. But what should I do if the accident occurs after the system issues a shot reminder, what should I do before the human driver intervene? ”
In theory, if the driver did not take over time, the responsibility should be borne by the driver. However, if the driver takes over the 10th second after the system issues an alarm, it is not “timeout”, but the accident happens in the 8th second after the alarm?
In principle, the main body of the responsible case is an automatic driving system. However, the situation in the specific practice may be more complex, there are many disputes that are unclear.
Germany also mentioned in the “Road Traffic Regulations” after the revised “road traffic regulations” need to install the data during the black box to collect data during the driving process, in order to conduct a responsibility determination and division when there is an accident in the future. But this provision still has not dispelled concerns about car manufacturers.
According to Audi’s internal persons, their corporate legal counsel is basically opposed to the L3, because once the vehicle has accidents during the automatic driving process, even if the system has 99.9% of the safety factor, the car company is still to bear Corresponding responsibility. Even even if the owner itself is not in time, it will eventually be attributed to the system.
This is one of the key reasons for Audi finally decided to cancel the L3 project.
Japan and South Korea: L3 after the accident is taken by the driver
The entanglement of Audi in the L3 project is actually a difficult to face the left and right when many cars are facing L3: I have given up the L3, I miss the great opportunity to accumulate data and iterative technology, and may therefore lose the entrance of the L4 war Voucher; “Dead”, maybe as long as one or two fatal accidents are enough to make them destroy for many years.
This emotion of car companies will also pass policy makers in their country.
Automatic driving, is one of the important issues of great country technology competition. Some of the policy makers of the auto big country are worried that if the country car companies are too conservative because of the “Who will take responsibility”, the country may lose to other countries in the competition of automatic driving technology. This kind of mood in Japan and South Korea is more serious.
In order to dispel the car manufacturer’s doubts about the launch of the L3-level automatic driving lot, in March 2018, Japan proposed in the “Road Traffic Law” revision case, the accident of the L3 automatic driving car needs to be by the owner (driver) To take responsibility; car manufacturers only need to be responsible in the system of defects in the system.
Of course, car manufacturers have used conditions for the use of L3 systems, such as weather and road conditions, driving time and speed, etc., need to obtain government approval.
In May 2019, this amendment officially passed the Parliament vote.
However, in June, the “Road Traffic Act Amendment” was passed in June, Japan’s driver allowed the driver to eat, watching mobile phones, reading or using car entertainment. The revised law will take effect in May 2020.
In order to prevent the driver from playing mobile phones for a long time, in September 2019, the Japanese cabinet approved a rule for punishment for the driver “inappropriate use of L3”: the driver did not take over the vehicle in time after the system issued a prompt, will face A fine of 12,000 yen ($ 110).
Three fronts were integrated, meaning: the law allowed L3 drivers to let go of self, I am sorry, once it goes out, you will bear it; at the same time, in order to reduce the accident, I hope that the driver will so far.
This reflects that Japanese officials are automatically driving this international competition. It is incomparable to entanglement – I hope that the manufacturers can seize this opportunity, and they don’t want them to carry too much pressure; encourage consumers to try, and fear He is too bold.
In December 2019, Honda announced that the Japanese first L3 automatic driver car legend will be launched in the summer of 2020.
South Korea, also clarified in April 2019, the “Car Accident Compensation Act”, which involves the automatic driving car involving L3, will be responsible by the driver. Of course, in the specific operation, the owner must purchase an insurance for the automatic driving car. After the accident, the insurance company first compensates the victim for the owner; then check whether the automatic cars have defects to determine if the manufacturer should Accident is responsible.
On January 5, 2020, the South Korean Land Transport Department announced that it will introduce the world’s first L3 automatic driving safety standard, which will take effect after 6 months, so that automakers have begun to produce from July. Sales “L3 automatic driving vehicles containing lane maintenance function” becomes possible. However, the driver should take over the vehicle within 15 seconds after the system warned.
At the beginning, the “L3” system on the Korean market does not support automatic changes in high-speed, and the variants still need to be implemented by manual operation. When is the specific automatic change, it is still unclear. In contrast, Tesla will be able to achieve automatic variability in high speed in October 2018. It seems that the L3 under the Korean law is a big discount – in fact, “L3” said in the Korean law is just a “lane maintenance”.
Similarly, the “European first L3 regulations” adopted on the World Forum at the end of June 2020, according to the United Nations European ECA’s car regulations (WP.29), and the “L3” application scenario is also limited by the “L3” application scenario. In the automatic lane holding function, and the vehicle speed is limited to 60 km / h.
It is especially noteworthy that the provisions of the United Nations ECM of ECA stipulate that the conditions of the activation of the L3 system are: vehicles should be on the road to prohibition of pedestrians and cyclists; secondly, there is a physical separator on the road for separation Trains traveling in the opposite direction (single lane). This scenario may be extremely limited.
Next, some German car companies may euphemistically replace “L3” with the words “L3”, and the speed limit of the vehicle will also be adjusted to 60 kilometers from the original plan.
In fact, Audi A8 has previously been evaluated as “lane under low speed without the enabled activation of the automatic driving system.” There is no traffic signal or pedestrian “in the vehicle sensor monitoring. Keep + adaptive cruise function, not to strictly significantly. ”
This is understandable that the evolution and commercialization of automatic driving technology need to experience a step-by-step process, which is much more secure than one step to the SAE standard.
It is worth noting that the laws and regulations of the Japan and Korea have stipulated that there should be equipment that should be contained in the car. Among them, the Japanese cabinet provisions in a regulation adopted in September 2019. If the driver uses the L3 function without monitoring equipment, it will be a fine of $ 110.
There is no similar provision in the standard of SAE. But Audi A8 also consciously added the driver’s attention monitoring system in product design. It seems that through technical means to limit the driver’s “unreliable degree”, it has become a consensus of the industry.
However, although the driver’s attention monitoring system can improve security, it may cause the user experience to decline seriously.
Under normal circumstances, human drive rely on “muscle memory”, a lot of movements are completely subconscious, even if it is not how to make brains can also ensure safety; and in the automatic driving car in the L3 level, the machine is the driving responsibility main body, the driver is liberated “After the muscle memory is unable to play, there is a high level of nervousness to be high. This is even more tired than if he drives himself.
However, if you change a kind of idea, understand the L3 as “high-distribution version of L2”, let L3 system “assist people driving”,
Their “anti-humanity” and “receiving paradox” have been solved, and the safety and driving experience of vehicles will be better.
From the progress of the current progress, the lead in implementing this concept into practice is China’s vehicle enterprises. Also, some olfactory sensitive suppliers are not integrated into their product strategies in their own product strategy.
China: L3 will differentiate into “high-distribution version L2” and “quasi-L4”
On March 10, 2020, Changan Motor issued its first L3 automatic driving car Uni-T for mass production capacity. The automatic driving function of this car is:
When the vehicle is less than 40 kilometers at the high speed, the automatic driving system can help the driver to liberate both hands and eyes, and once the accident, the manufacturer is responsible; but when the vehicle speed is above 40 km, the automatic driving system Only the driver’s hands can be liberated, but it cannot liberate the eyes, and once the accident, the responsibility needs to be borne by the driver.
At the time, this provision was launched by some industry insiders as “low speed L3, high speed L2”.
In fact, under the prior art level, the L3 dropped to the L2 function is used in the high-speed road section, which is a more responsible practice for the personal safety of the user.
Of course, the driver may not always pay attention to the speed of the vehicle, so the speed of the vehicle rises from 40 kilometers to less than 40 kilometers, the driver’s attention is quickly recovered, which will be a relatively large challenge.
However, Changan emphasizes that the L3-level automatic driving technology on UNI-T is “mass production” technology, not “mass production configuration”. Changan Uni-T, which is about to be listed, does not carry an L3-level automatic driving system.
In mid-March, GAC new energy released its first L3-level automatic driving lot Aion LX, but even in high-speed roads that complied with the L3 application scene, GAC new energy now does not allow users to completely release their hands.
At this time, Xu Junhai, director of Guangqi New Energy Technology Center, said in receiving the “first electric network”, “technical can be implemented, but the domestic traffic regulations are not allowed.”
In order to avoid the case where the driver is not concentrated and hand-leaving the steering wheel when using the L3 automatic driving function, GAC’s new energy source has a camera and a pressure sensor to monitor, once there is no compliance, it will Sound and image form alert driver. In other words, even if the L3 system is open, the driving responsibility subject is still the driver himself. This is still L2 if the division criteria of SAE.
However, Compared to the L2-level automatic driving volume car under SAE standard, AION LX achieves redundancy in automatic driving chips and line control (two chips, Eyeq4 installed, IBOOSTER + A combination of ESP).
Therefore, AION LX automatic driving system is an “highly used version of L2”.
Similar to the Guangzhou Automobile New Energy Aion LX, the automatic driving function of Xiaopeng P7 is also a standard design of the reference L3. However, before listed at the end of April 2020, Xiaopeng did not mention “L 3” in PR, but “said” can achieve a scene expression close to the automatic driving of L3, which can be automatically selected according to navigation and road conditions. Yue Tao is automatically changed to automatically pass the highway hub. ”
Previously, Wu Xinzhou, a Vice President of Xiaopeng Automobile, was also clearly expressed in an interview with 36: “Will not allow the driver’s line of sight to leave the road for 10 seconds. There is a strong driver monitoring system in the car, ask the driver or use L2 Like, keep the focus on the road. ”
At present, Xiaopeng official to the automatic driving system mounted on P7 is the “XPilot 3.0 auxiliary driving system”. “Auxiliary Driving” means that the body’s responsibility body is still the driver himself, which is also L2 under the SAE standard.
However, compared to ordinary L2 quantities cars, Xiaopeng P7 is “super high” on a perceived system and computing platform.
P7 perceived systems include 12 ultrasonic sensors, 13 cameras, 1 car inside, 5 mm wave radar, this standard far exceeded. In addition, P7 also layout two sets of computing platforms, XPilot 3.0 computing platforms and XPilot 2.0 computing platform hardware is completely independent, mutual redundancy.
The Wu Xinzhou said in the case of accepting media, for a car factory, to investigate how the L3 is not important, the key is that there is any user who is used, can not produce value.
On March 25th, Dr. Liu Dehao, who was aware of the car, said in the speech, Xiaopeng’s strategy is that Xiaopeng’s strategy is to achieve high-level assist driving skills, even unlimited upwards. But in the security strategy, we will still use people to drive as the mainstay, Xiaopeng seeks to do the optimal solution to the specific functionality of specific functions within the safety threshold.
Another kind of new forces for the car will introduce an automatic driving function of “between L2 and L4” during the mass production car between 2021 and 2022. According to the usual understanding, it is L3 between L2 and L4, but in the ideal inside, this function is not called L3, but NOA.
NOA’s full name is Navigate on AutoPilot, the Chinese name is “automatic auxiliary navigation driving”. The first proposes this concept is Tesla. In October 2018, after the automatic driving software is upgraded to version 9.0, Tesla automatic driving can be automatically changed at high speed, which is called NOA.
After Tesla demonstrated the NOA function, the industry once exclaimed “There is only one step away from the automatic driving”. It can be seen that NOA is similar to L3 under SAE standard in technology capabilities.
However, in view of the introduction of Tesla official to introduce the “automatic driving” function, it is mentioned that the driver needs always pay attention to the road conditions. We can speculate that under NOA, the driving responsibility subject is still the driver.
This kind of responsibility is also supported from academia.
As early as March 2019, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of Tsinghua University Vehicle College, Li * Qi * strong in the “Intelligent Network” magazine “advanced automatic driving, can it break through the L3 industry bottleneck? “One paper mentioned two presented forms of L3 automatic driving technology in the actual landing process:
At present, most L3 industrialization schemes are more embodied in integration and integration of different grade driving assistance (L1 / L2) function, which is equivalent to the technical route of the ADAS system upgrade (realizing L2 + level automatic driving); and future L3 industrialization development The direction needs to be approximated to the L4 to achieve a smooth transition, and the difficulty of technology development is bound to rise.
The former route is mainly suitable for enclosed and semi-closed regions, structured and semi-structural roads (60 ~ 150km / h), in these scenarios, the main value of L3 is to enhance traffic safety (extended L2 .5); the latter route is mainly suitable for urban roads, parks, ports, mining areas such as low-speed travel (0 ~ 60km / h), in these scenes, the main value of L3 is alternative to the driver (L4-) .
See the figure below:
Overall, the guiding ideology of the future L3 automatic driving technology industrialization can be summarized as “high-speed assistant, low-speed alternative”.
In the “Automobile Driving Automation Section” issued in March 2020, the China Industry and Information Technology has not explicitly stipulated that L3’s driving responsibility main body is, it clearly stipulates that the L3 mass production car should be matched to monitor the driver “takeover capacity” system. . If the monitoring system believes that the driver’s takeover capability “will not meet the requirements”, even if the auto-driving system has not yet exposed, it also has a responsibility to send a pick-up request to the driver. This is equal to, no matter who the responsibility of the accident, the driver of the domestic L3 mass production cars can read the book in the car as thinking before some people.
Considering that many “mass production L3” at this stage is only set up redundancy for certain key components / systems, not “full system redundancy”, so, whether from protecting consumer security, or from ensuring car companies and industries From the perspective of long-term healthy development, “L3” is positioned as “high-speed assistant” is a more pragmatic approach.
As we mentioned above, when the system can perform a driving task in the system of driving, it is required that the driver still “keeps the attention” will lead to poor user experience. However, if the driver uses the L3 as “high-navigating version of L2”, it is rising compared to ordinary L2, regardless of safety or user experience.
It is also worth noting that in China “Automobile Driving Automation Section”, in the explanation of the “dynamic driving task tube user” of L3, the pick-up personnel can be in the vehicle or outside the vehicle.
In the standard of SAE, we are difficult to understand that the L3 automatic driving car is in an emergency by “take over the outside personnel”. The author’s understanding is that the L3 under the Chinese standard is except for the upgraded version of the SAE standard. “There is also a form that is in the test / trial operation stage contains a safe driver or a remote handler’s L4. The species may also be called “quasi-L4”.
L3 vehicles under the Standard of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology shall take over by “outer personnel” under urgent conditions, and should take over the remote handler in an emergency, which is equivalent to SAE standard. This is just the concept of “high-speed assistant, low-speed alternative” in the L3 automatic driving technology in the land, and Li * Qi * strong professor.
Another detail that can be determined with the above speculation is: Under SAE standard, only L4 vehicles require “risk mitigation strategy”, that is, when the automatic driving system or user cannot perform driving tasks, the system needs to be able to reduce risk Measures – such as parking in the lane, etc. In the automatic driving grading standard of the Chinese version, L3 needs to increase the “risk mitigation strategy”, it can be seen that China standard is much strict than SAE standards.
For “quasi-L4”, it is a matter of course for “risk mitigation strategy”; and increases “high-distribution version of L2 ‘vehicles”, there is no doubt that the security index has enabled a level (in some “Enjoy L4 treatment”).
As one of the car companies participating in the “car driving automation classification” of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Changan introduced its L3 automatic driving function. “” When the vehicle speed exceeds 40 km / h, once the system is monitored The sight of the staff left the front road, will make a sound and instrument icon warning, if the user does not take over after reminding the takeover, the system will perform risk mitigation strategy, decelerate parking. ”
The explanation of Chang’an was lacped as “L2 on the high speed” at the time, but few people noticed that because of the increase of “risk mitigation strategy”, this “L2”, under some extreme cases “Sae standard” There is only one ability to have only L4. ”
Like the Professor of Mingyuan and Lee * Qi *, Li Yifei, Vice President of Changan Automobile Intelligent Research Institute, also held “in the L3 stage, smart driving products will realize the high-speed help people”, high-speed help people. View.
In the international market, Mercedes-Benz, Toyota and other companies simply define the functionality of L3 standard design as “L2”.
Head suppliers have returned L3 as “ADAS”
Legal responsibility is borne by the driver. It is largely dispelled that the vehicle enterprises in the launch of the “L3” function, and it is also conducive to automatic driving to expand application scenarios and improvement capabilities. This will drive the automatic driving chip, laser radar and high-precision maps, etc., the application is accelerated on the mass production vehicle.
As if it is a good quantity, automatic parts suppliers such as Mobileye, Velodyne and Bosch are also adjusted towards the “high-distributed L2” direction.
In the previous business plan for Mobileye, L3 for consumers is later than Robotaxi, which means that Mobileye with traditional cars, is very conservative in thinking, and is extremely cautious about controversial L3 attitude.
In fact, early in the second half of 2017, Mobileye took the lead in proposing the concept of L2 +, although there is no specific definition, but it is more clear that the maximum upgrade relative to L2, L2 + is active (ALC), This requires the vehicle to increase local or global path planning capabilities while having L2 functions such as horizontal automatic control (ACC / AEB / LKA).
At the same time, the difference between L3, L2 + still requires the driver’s full concentration attention, which avoids two core issues that currently restrict L3 landing: the responsibility division of the car and the response time during the transition process during the control. The former needs to follow up in laws and regulations, and the latter will reduce the user experience if it is too short. At a conference call after acquiring MOWVIT, Mobileye CEO SHASHUA said: “Level 3 is a very prosker 3.” In the cooperation with some car enterprises in Mobileye, the car company said in the PR. It is L3, and the L2 + of the Mobileye official website.
It can be seen that the controversial L3, Mobileye is very cautious, and they will not take responsibility for the automatic driving accidents caused by the “L3” car owners.
In the summer of 2016, after the first automatic driving accident in Tesla, Mobileye had declare that Tesla’s product function involving the Mobileye chip is improperly, misleading the user is “pulling black” Tesla, in the future, when the so-called ” After the vehicle accident, Mobileye is still possible to “sanctions” by defending the value.
Before 2018, it was mentioned that there was a broad consensus that had already been “there is a must-have” automatic driving car “, very few I heard that L2 also requires laser radar. But in early 2019, Velodyne announced the laser radar Velarray against L2, which is the first time the laser radar follows L2 “Leg”.
More interesting, in October 2019, when Velodyne’s strategic cooperation agreement with modern car Tier 1 Mobis, the press release in the modern and Mobis, “cooperation against mass production”, and Velodyne official website The press release is said to “cooperate with the ADAS project”, only the word “L3” is not mentioned.
According to SAE standard, the essence of L2 is “system assistant driving”, so the automatic driving system is an ADAS (advanced assist driving), and the nature of L3 is the “people assist system driving”, so L3 should not be considered ADAS. . What’s more, “L3 is automatically driving the watershed”, this view is already a industry consensus.
Velodyne’s “L3” in the modern and Mobis ports is called “ADAS”, because they have realized “L3” in Korea’s law, and L3 under SAE standard is not the same concept – in Korea standard In “L3”, the driving responsibility subject is still the driver himself, that is, the so-called “L3-level automatic driving system” role is still just ADAS.
Velodyne hooks the laser radar with the L2 in early 2019, which is also based on the same reason.
Velodyne got a strategic investment in Japanese company Nikon in December 2018, and the two sides also decided to cooperate in Nikon’s Japanese factory. Japanese car companies were definitely their main target customers, and revised in March in Japan. The latter law, L3 under the Japanese standard, actually the “high-profile version” of L2 under SAE standard. Therefore, Veldoynye said that it is necessary to explore the L2 market, and it is not unclear.
On 2020 CES, Velodyne has launched a laser radar venaBit for L2. At the same time, Velodyne’s new CEO Anand Gopala also mentioned in receiving media interviews that in the current company’s automobile business contract, two-thirds of ADAS, one-third of the automatic driving car.
This further confirmed the difference in the concept of “L3 in Japan, Japan, only ADAS” in Velodyne’s eyes.
Also in 2020 CES, South Korea’s Carnavicom also mentioned that “In order to deploy ADAS technology, we invest 4 billion won in 2019 to build a SMT production line, hoping to make the annual output of laser radar sensors over 1.8 million units.”
The ADAS here is the same concept, namely “L3” in Japan and Korean law and car entrance.
In the Chinese market, the definition of “L3” responds to the most obvious supplier, and it is necessary to count.
In October 2019, Chen Liming, President, China President of Bosch Chassis Control System, said that “L3’s progress is obviously deviated from expectations” in receiving 36Kr visits. On the electric vehicle in January 2020, Jiang Jingfang, senior vice president of China, China, also mentioned that the automatic driving of L3 and above was discussed.
However, at the online press conference on May 14, Bosch China President Chen Yudong emphasized that the following levels will be promoted as soon as possible to promote mature technology. “In the field of L2.5, L3 automatic driving, including functions such as starting on highways. At present, Bosch Shanghai, Suzhou can undertake production projects.”
The “L3 is a pseudo-issues” also noticed that “L3 is being redefined” this phenomenon. In January 2020, Christophe Marnat, Executive Vice President, Executive Efu Electronics and Advanced Drive Assistant System, also mentioned that “ADAS function is improved, and the entire industry is moving towards L2 + or L2 ++ or L2 +++.” And “car manufacturers are suspending to accept and level 3-related responsibilities” both trends.
With the giants such as Bosch and Qifu re-emphasize the new defined L3 market. In the next few years, there will be more and more car companies to join the “L3 mass production” camp. However, consumers who purchase L3 automatic driving must be clear, this L3 is not “you think that L3”.
Divided according to application scenarios, more valuable than by “level”
In the market promotion of the car, the market promotion stage should be explained in the market promotion stage, which means that the user’s ability can be used, which is necessary for the user to specify and reduce the necessary premise of the relevant accidents.
In fact, in the second half of 2017, Li Xingyu, who was the Skyline Business Director, mentioned in many cases: Automatic driving is divided according to application scenarios, more valuable than graded. Tesla’s NOA (navigation assist driving) proposed in October 2018 is defined in the scene.
In August 2020, the founder of Heada Technology also mentioned in a speech that they did not emphasize that automatic driving technology must expand to a certain level. Because “From our point of view, only emphasize L4, do not emphasize the actual commercial application, does not meet the mass production route”.
Ni Kai said, and more don’t pay attention to the “artificial tube rate” indicator, but stand at the end of the end user, “more attention can be adapted to different road conditions, can do function when switching with high-precision maps Downstore or upgrade these indicators. ”
In 2020, in the Chinese market, there is also a interesting phenomenon. The automatic driving ability of many models is originally based on the standard of L3. In the earlier preheating stage, it is also L3, but in the near future stage, It is basically not how to mention “L3” concept, but to renamen NOA, NOP, NGP, etc. according to scene definitions. Baidu proposed an ANP at the end of the year and is defined according to the scene.
This shift is more wise. Because, from the user’s perspective, the scene is more important.
However, the reality is, for some car companies, even if it is no longer mentioned, but renamed “navigation assist driving”, they still tangled in mind: On the one hand, I hope that by emphasizing “just auxiliary driving” to avoid Responsibility issues, on the other hand, but not willing to make the system only play “auxiliary driving” positioning.
If the core executives of the car enterprise are talking about the concept of “artificial tube”, the default system is “driving behavior main body” (people assist system), but this is “assist driving” Positioning is conflict. This ambiguous positioning is likely to automatically drive accidents in the future, causing the company even the entire industry to fall into the public relations crisis.
Currently, it is especially important to use the car company. It is easier to avoid the user’s expectation value by clear product definition before the user orders. Further, breeding disappointment, and even “powder black”.
After aware of these issues, next, not only for L3, even for L2, many car companies will focus on the use scenarios and user physical examination of their automatic driving functions, and try to talk to the automatic driving level.