Solid state batteries, all-weather batteries, 70MPa hydrogen storage tanks, SiC electric drive systems, hub motors, intelligent automotive electronic electrical architecture, and other key technologies, etc., becoming the key technologies for the first new energy vehicle issued by the Ministry of Science and Technology in the Science and Technology Department .
A few days ago, “” New Energy Automobile “key special 2021 project declaration guide recommendation” (Draft for Comment) (hereinafter referred to as “Guide”) is released.
Under the promotion of policies, China’s new energy auto production has been in the world for five consecutive years.
The sales volume of the holiday does not represent the product maturation. New energy automotive industry is still far less than fuel vehicles, because there are many key technical issues that have multiple card necks, and the performance and cost problems that need to be solved in need of technological progress.
Based on this, the Ministry of Science and Technology has issued major special guidelines for many years, trying to assist relevant units to actually land in the road map. This year’s new energy key points are concentrated in energy power, electric drive systems, intelligent driving, bus network integration, support technology, and 6 technical directions of the vehicle platform, start 19 guidelines.
According to the “Guide”, these tasks are reached, but also very exciting. Many of these will break the core difficult pain points of intelligent electric vehicles, and boost the popularity of intelligent electric vehicles.
New energy storage:
Encourage solid state batteries, climate batteries, fuel cells and hydrogen storage tanks
In terms of energy storage equipment, the Ministry of Science and Technology continues to regular basis research and common key technologies such as solid metal lithium batteries, all climate batteries, solid oxide fuel cells, hydrogen storage tanks and car hydrogen storage systems.
(1) Solve the interface, conductivity, and life for solid state batteries
Aspect, suggests that the solid-state composite positive specific capacity is greater than 400mAh / g; the composite metal lithium negative electrode is more than 1500 mAh / g; the solid electrolyte thickness is 1 ms / cm, lithium ion migration number> 0.8; Solid metal lithium battery: Capacity> 10 AH, more energy> 600 WH / KG, 1C charge and discharge conditions Circulation Life> 1000 times.
Slim lithium battery for blue energy car
For power battery safety and low temperature performance, the assessment requires that the power battery system is increased from -30 ° C -0 ° C temperature rise time ≤ 3min, and the energy consumption is ≤5%; the temperature difference between the power system is ≤5 ° C (-30 ° C) ~ 0 ° C); power battery non-destructive heating cycle life ≥ 300 times (ambient temperature -30 ° C); battery system is set in efficiency ≥80%; abnormal battery ID in power battery system ≥95%, battery short-circuit fault diagnosis is accurate The rate is ≥90%. Forming a battery system security risk prediction early warning model ≥3, establishing a safety risk assessment system and technical specifications; the battery system does not afford the fire in 90min (after the battery thermal out-of control signal is issued); the battery system 200kn squeezed does not affise [Climate, high safety power battery system loading ≥1000 (passenger cars) or commercial vehicle ≥100.
At present, the thermal diffusion test of “power battery safety requirements for electric vehicles” standard battery system requires that the battery system does not afford the fire within 5 minutes, and the safety escape time is reserved for the occupant.
Source: GB30381-2020 “Power Battery Safety Requirements for Electric Vehicles”
This key points are more refined to the battery thermal out-of-control signal.
(2) Encourage solid oxide fuel cells and 70MPa hydrogen storage tank technology development
Car fuel cell power generation system for different fuel scenes, research solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) key components, electric stack, system design and integrated technology. Develop consistency long life stack assembly technology, forming batch manufacturing capabilities.
Aspect, proposes to form the engineering technology of SOFC key components, electric stacks and systems. Complete the structure of the high-reliability long square cell, under the condition of ≥ 300mA / cm2, voltage attenuation is ≤4 ‰ / thousand hours; formation of low-cost metal connectors and coating materials processing technology; master the engineering of SOFC electric stack Technology, single electric stack power ≥1.0kW, electric stack power density ≥ 1.0kW / L, electrical efficiency ≥ 60%; complete hydrogen, natural gas, and alcohol, etc. for fuel, solid oxide fuel cell cold thermal power supply system development, Rated power generation power ≥ 50KW, start time second, 3 minutes to 50% output power, power generation efficiency ≥ 55% (DC, LHV), thermoelectric supply total efficiency ≥ 85%, life ≥ 5000H, voltage attenuation ≤ 5 ‰ / thousand hour.
Toyota 70MPa hydrogen storage tank
In response to hydrogen storage systems, centrally capturing 70MPa large-capacity IV type bottles, integrated bottle valves, hydrogen storage system pressure valve group, hydrogen storage system controller, hydrogen leak detection sensor, etc., form high pressure, large-capacity vehicle storage hydrogen storage system.
According to the assessment, the car 70MPa large-capacity IV type bottle hydrogen storage system effective hydrogen storage mass ≥ 32kg, hydrogen leakage rate ≤ 10 ml / h, hydrogen supply capacity ≥7g / s, system service life ≥ 10 years and other refinement requirements.
It is generally believed that if you want to lay out of a fuel cell system on a passenger car, the 70MPA hydrogen storage bottle is required.
Encourage new electric drives, hub motors, mixed special engines, etc.
In the field of electric drive system, the Ministry of Science and Technology hopes to develop new materials for new materials, focusing on SiC electric drive compatibility and suppression methods; and explore the application prospects of hub motors and mixed special engine and efficient electromechanical coupling techniques. For electric drive technology, the assessment indicator requires the resistivity of the super copper wire by 20% lower than the copper wire, the strength is 10% higher than the ordinary copper wire; 1200V single-chip flow capacity ≥ 250A, the conduction pressure drop ≤ [email protected] / 150 ° C, maximum junction temperature 250 ° C; SiC motor controller peak power density ≥70kw / L @ peak power 300kW, EMC Dan CISPR Level 4 requirement and other technical indicators.
For high performance motors, the assessment requires direct driving wheel motor peak torque density ≥ 20 nm / kg or ≥ 60 nm / L, the reducing hub motor body power density ≥ 5.0kw / kg; hub motor assembly system maximum efficiency ≥92%, system CLTC The overall use efficiency is ≥ 80%; the hub motor assembly 1M total noise ≤ 72dB, the protection level is not less than IP68, the impact vibration standard is not less than the traditional hub indicator, the electromagnetic compatibility can meet the Class 4 and above technical indicators.
In terms of mixed special engine and electromechanical coupling technology, the assessment requirements are used for special engine thermal efficiency ≥ 44%, engine emissions satisfy the national six B + RDE; mechanical transmission efficiency of mechanical transmission ≥95%, China Status CLTC, Engine High Efficiency Area Zhan ratio ≥ 65% (high-efficiency area definition: 5 percentage points of the highest thermal efficiency), the comprehensive efficiency of electromechanical coupling system is ≥85%.
Encourage EEI, learning automatic driving, expected function security and other technologies
In response to smart cars, the Ministry of Science and Technology encourages relevant departments to develop traffic, cloud network integrated centralized electronic electrical information architecture, automatic driving evolutionary learning technology, and risk identification security technology.
Electronic and electrical architecture assessment indicator requirements, forming an integrated technology platform supports C-V2X information interaction, all-in-vehicle related software upgrade time ≤ 20 minutes, vehicle network communication speed can reach 10Gbit / s, time-sensitive business stream is extended to 50 microseconds The time synchronization accuracy is less than 20 nanoseconds.
For learning-type automatic driving key technical assessment, it is required to predict traffic participants in the prediction time of 5 s, long-time domain trajectory prediction error ≤0.5m (horizontal) and ≤2m (longitudinal); support for the automatic driving function above L3 level Evolutionary training, cover typical road scenarios ≥ 5 and traffic participants ≥ 4, online learning system update cycle ≤ 30min; automatic driving controller ≥2tops / w, main function module average delay <150ms; edge scene Driving sample fragment ≥ 10,000, edge scene type ≥ 80 class, automatic driving performance evaluation model accuracy ≥90%; training platform supports ≥100 traffic nodes virtual traffic scenarios.
For the expected functional safety technology, it is developed for the expected safety implementation protection system, and technical verification is carried out in no less than 20 marginal scenes.
Encourage bus network integration related technologies
Ministry of Science and Technology encourages the modeling technology, high-precision map and Beidou positioning technology, high-precision map and Beidou positioning technology, and automatic driving simulation and test evaluation tools for intelligent automobile information physical system.
In the information physical system technology, the system design model library proposes the system design model library contains no less than 20 sets of system communication and kinetic model sets, accommodating no less than 500 system models, accuracy ≥90%; architecture and analysis dimensions of architecture framework ≥7; system requirements definition ≥ 2000, system functions, logic, and physical architectural elements are not less than 4,500.
For dynamic map and Beidou positioning technology, the assessment requires that the map model supports moving static multi-layer data calls, including automatic driving perception and decision-making application interface protocols, map covers kilometers ≥ 10,000 kilometers; high precision map relative to error per 100 meters ≤ 15 cm, based on professional collection car map update accuracy ≥99%, based on the pre-package data map update accuracy ≥90%; the super-visual unfashionable area perceived test accuracy is ≥90%, dynamic information transmission delay ≤1 seconds and other indicators.
For automatic driving simulation technology, the ultimate condition of high-precision automatic driving simulation software is ≥90%; open road automatic driving accident scenario case ≥1000 cases; cloud control platform data size supports PB level, simulation task implementation The rate is ≥99.9%, reaching 100,000 / min use examples of generating rates and 10,000 / hour use case test rates.
Encourage support technology development
The Ministry of Science and Technology also encourages relevant units to develop electric control units key tool chain, vehicle rule-grade chip test technology, vehicle energy storage system safety assessment technology and high associations and other support technologies.
For the key tool chain of the electric control unit, the assessment requirements can meet the V-type development process, develop coverage software modeling, hardware and software test, communication bus simulation and testing, etc., no less than 4, car electrical control unit module-level software Modeling tools can support system graphical modeling, continuous and discrete simulation, state machine modeling and other technical indicators.
For the chip, the Ministry of Science and Technology hopes that the relevant units will develop the vehicle-based chip function safety test case library and test technology based on FPGA semi-real platform and chip real platform; calculate the chip strength, energy test technology, etc. Skyline model chip
On the assessment, you need to build a multi-sample (≥ 20) synchronous test, the test temperature range -40 ° C ~ 250 ° C, the humidity relative humidity> 65%, pressure ≥ 15psig (pound / square inch) environmental stress test system, and can be applied Life test system of biased in power (voltage range 0-20V and resolution 10mv).
In response to the safety assessment and equipment of the in-vehicle energy storage system, the Ministry of Science and Technology hopes that the relevant units hope that the safety damage mechanism, evolution laws and evaluation techniques of multi-scenario system safety damage, research battery system heat loss Evaluation technology, research battery system failure and disaster hazard assessment technology, study battery system life and safety coupling mechanism and law, establish a dynamic battery multi-dimensional safety evaluation system and standards.
On the assessment level, the power battery multi-dimensional safety evaluation system and equipment are required; the development of the active battery system safety intelligent non-destructive testing system is not less than 2 sets, the test accuracy is not less than 90%; the safety of the vehicle hydrogen hydrogen system Quantitative evaluation system and online monitoring system, applying verification on commercial vehicles and passenger cars, online monitoring system security response time is less than 1 second; the micro leak detection accuracy of the car hydrogen hydrogen leak detection is higher than 50 ppm.
In response to the key technology of collaborative shift, the Ministry of Science and Technology hopes that the relevant units can study the vehicle – pile (station) – Yunxiang-level charging physical information network architecture, large data drive safety and efficient charging management and control technology, R & D ports (station) Internet interconnection real-time data interaction platform, etc.
In terms of assessment, it is required to build a vehicle data interactive platform to achieve cross-platform car pile data interconnection, cross-platform data interoperability and call average response time ≤1s, high concurrent service capability ≥ 200,000, access charging pile ≥1 million , Car ≥ 3 million; fast change battery system compatible battery pack type ≥3 species, can be replaced by ≥3, battery replacement time ≤90s; wireless charge and discharge system bidirectional power ≥30KW, transmission distance ≥ 20cm, output voltage range DC250-900V, 10% to 100% load range system efficiency ≥92%, maximum efficiency ≥94%.
Encourage high adaptation platform, heavy-duty vehicle platform technology
This part mainly targets power platform technology in passenger cars and passenger environments, as well as heavy-duty vehicle platform technology.
The Ministry of Science and Technology hopes to study the high-efficiency cooling technology, high-insulation and high safety protection technology of low energy consumption technology, high temperature and high humidity environment, low energy consumption technology, high temperature and high humidity environment.
In terms of assessment indicators, for 12m gear electric passenger cars, it is necessary to do ≤ 52kWh / 100km (CHTC working condition); all climate (ambient temperature range cover -35 ° C ~ + 40 ° C) Continued mileage ≥ 300km (CHTC Working conditions); – 35 ° C, vehicle renewal mileage is not less than 85% of normal temperature continuous mileage, the vehicle cold start time ≤ 8min, air conditioning heat power ≥ 14kw, COP ≥ 1.3.40 ° C, air conditioning refrigeration Power ≥22KW, COP ≥ 1.7; Develop models ≥2, 30 minutes, maximum speed ≥100km / h, 0-50km / h acceleration time ≤15s, maximum climb ≥ 25%, 100-level verification applications.
For the B-class passenger car, the assessment indicator is a vehicle energy consumption ≤ 14kWh / 100km (CLTC working condition); the climate (ambient temperature range is covered – 35 ° C ~ + 40 ° C) Renewal mileage ≥ 500km (CLTC working condition); -35 ° C, the vehicle’s renewal mileage is not less than 85% of the normal temperature, the vehicle cold start time is ≤ 5min, the air conditioner heat power is ≥4 kW, COP ≥ 1.3.40 ° C Environmental temperature, air conditioning refrigeration power ≥7.5kw , COP ≥ 1.7; Develop models ≥2, maximum speed ≥180km / h; 0-100km / h acceleration time ≤ 4s, full load maximum climb ≥ 30%; realize thousands of verification applications.
After 20 years of hard work, my country’s electric vehicle technology research and development capabilities have been in good faith, from weak to strong, independent innovation has made important progress, basically established a country that suits China’s national conditions, effective joint production and research strength and the development of the automotive industry Innovation system, the supporting research and development system of key components has begun to achieve results.
And these efforts have also been recognized by consumers. In 2020, the proportion of private consumption of new energy vehicles has increased to nearly 70%, which can be described as the year of the rise of private consumption markets. Therefore, we have to continue and consolidate this unpredictable growth momentum, continue to jointly produce the strength of all parties, actively break through the technical bottleneck, to meet market demand, and the technical competitive pressure brought by more open markets.