The largest scale IPO: 4.4 billion in financing, configuring laser radar, super luxury car Lucid Challenge Tesla

2010 Tesra IPO raised $ 226 million.

In 2018, IPO funds $ 1 billion.

2020 Ide IPO raised $ 1.1 billion, Xiaopeng IPO raised $ 1.5 billion.

In 2021, the US electric car startup company Lucid Motorsipo raised $ 4.4 billion and became the highest ranging from IPO fundament to date.

On February 24th, Lucid has reached an agreement with Churchill Capital IV (CCIV), and Lucid will be listed in the New Handling Office by merged with the latter.

According to the joint statement issued by both parties:

This participation in private equity includes Lucid’s existing large shareholder Saudi Public Investment Fund (PIF) and Belles, Fuda, Franklin Dunpum and other institutions, and its placement price is $ 15 per share, and the merger new company market value is expected. Reach $ 24 billion.

After deducting the relevant fees, the transaction will bring about $ 4.4 billion in net cash for Lucid.

It is worth noting that this is also the largest IPO of the global electric vehicle.

Although Lucid has not delivered a mass production car to consumers, the company’s product strategy is the closest, and there is also a deep origin in the team.

Lucid’s “Soul Character” CEO & CTO Peter Rawlinson was once the chief engineer of Tesra Model S. In addition, 8 of the 19 executive teams of Lucid have worked in Tesla.

It is also difficult for foreign media to treat lucid as the strongest competitor of Tesla.

Then, how Lucid is competing with Tesla, and the most crucial is of course to talk to the product.

The competition of smart electric vehicles is nothing more than the core three-power system and the intelligent / automatic driving ability.

1

Lucid vs. Tesla: Quality of the Three-power system

In 2016, LuCID released a new car LuCID AIR.

In November 2019, Lucid was finally approved by the local government by $ 700 million in Arizona (about 49 billion yuan).

This also means that Lucid’s first electric model LUCID AIR can finally enter a large scale production phase.

After 3 years, J201, Lucid officially announced that Lucid AIR has a price of $ 774 million, and is positioned as an electric car with a world’s first mileage reaches 500 miles (about 804 km).

If US users can enjoy $ 7,500 of federal tax reduction, the truck is actually priced at $ 69,900.

From the product positioning and selling price, Lucid Air’s most direct competitor is Tesla Model S.

Lucid AIR has a breakthrough motor indicator.

At 74kg weight, Lucid’s drive unit (motor and its related components) can provide up to 670 horsepower, which can reach the extent to which the competition is close to 3 times.

According to the measured data of electric vehicle researchers at the University of Carnegun University:

The test energy consumption of Lucid Air is approximately 136Wh / km, while the Model S is 156Wh / km.

Lucid AIR is 17% higher than Model S, 2% from aerodynamic optimization, 15% from motor design optimization.

However, taking into account lucid is a DC permanent magnet motor, the efficiency Bitzra’s exchange sensation should naturally be high.

But at least two are almost the same level, and the AC sensing has a greater dynamic range, but the efficiency is slightly lower.

On January 28, 202, the new Model S model has launched a new Model S, totaling three models:

The price is from 79.999 million yuan to 11.749 million yuan, the double motor four-way edition, three motor Plaid and Plaid Plus version, where the PLAID version is only 2.5 seconds, while LuCID is 2.5 seconds. The motor is small, the difficulty is to heat dissipation, the most conventional heat dissipation method is “air cool” – the approximate approach is to increase the heat dissipation area in the motor surface, and some will increase the heat dissipation fan to increase heat dissipation effect. The benefit is cheap.

Further, it is liquid cold, mainly to arrange a cooling waterway on the motor housing, so that the water flows away with heat.

This kind of heat dissipation is relatively extravagant.

Because additional electric pumps and heat sinks, this invisible increases additional costs and power consumption, and the structure is more complicated, and the manufacturing difficulty is also improved.

But for Lucid, the above two methods are not what they want.

They have developed “axial jet cooling manifold”, which allows water to pass through the heat transfer wire, thereby achieving cooling effect.

I have to turn over the history of LuCID.

Its predecessor is ATIEVA, Atieva is a company established in 2007, the company’s three-electric vehicle three-power system. Headquartered in Newark, California, the main customer is a vehicle company. And renamed Lucid.

Simply, Lucid is an auto parts supplier.

Because Lucid is an exclusive supplier of Formula E Racing Battery Technology.

Lucid is designed and created all the battery packs used by the Formula e, and provides a battery management system for the Formula E Racing.

Lucid is quite proud of self-service battery technology.

The 924V battery system equipped with Lucid Air is a battery pack of the highest voltage in the electric vehicle. Match the large battery group of 113kWh, allowing the Lucid Air Grand Touring version to achieve an EPA battery 832 km.

Lucid Air uses a 21700 cylindrical battery from LG chemical.

Different from Tesla inserting a thermally conductive tube to achieve battery pack temperature management, the temperature control of Lucid is added to the upper and lower layers of the battery.

This kind of benefit is that the same volume of battery pack is plugged into more batteries, which is why Lucid’s largest battery capacity can be 113 kWh.

And the result of this is that the Grand Touring version of EPA endurance mileage can reach 832 kilometers, converted into domestic NEDC standards, and life can be easily more than 1,000 kilometers.

LUCID uses a 900 V high voltage battery, which can be less current in the case where the 400 V battery can be output.

That means that you can use a finer cable, wire, can further allow the volume of the three-power system smaller.

But Lucid is more concerned about that less currents means lower resistors, which makes losing lower, and this can make Lucid AIR have better power and battery life.

If the data is used, LuCID AIR has a battery life of 7.4 kilometers. It is about 6.6 kilometers compared to Tenslas, and Lucid is obviously better in efficiency.

And it supports more than 300 kW charging power, more than 270 kW of Porsche Taycan, and Tesla Model 3 and Model Y, 250KW, 250 kW.

Lucid is competing with Tesla, in addition to the competition in the three-power system, automatic driving is also the key point of the target.

2

Lucid Air Challenge Tesla’s Secret Weapons:

MEMS laser radar

Tesla is currently tested in the fully automatic driving system FSD, soon, it will soon push the official version to the consumer.

Lucid must be pursued in this field. The first model Lucid Air is equipped with 32 sensors directly, compared to 21 of Tesla Autopilot 2.0.

Among them, the most worthy point is:

Lucid Air will also carry laser radar, which is probably delivered in the second half of this year, which may be the world’s first laser radar mass production.

32 sensors of Lucid AIR include: 1 forward laser radar

1 front view threecast camera

4 short-range millimeter Prada

4 front and back, left and right cameras

1 independent rear view camera

12 ultrasound

4 fish eyes 360 looked at the camera

12 ultrasound

1 DMS camera

This scheme does not use long-distance millimeter wave radar.

According to LuCID official disclosure, the laser radar is equivalent to 125 lines, and combined with the opening volume size estimate in the official photo of the Lucid Air, the forward laser radar is provided by domestic sagitar (currently only sagitched products M1) It meets equivalent 125 lines, and the size is small to embed the narrow slit under the Lucid AIR car.

Lucid’s laser radar can be placed under the car logo, or it can be placed in the rearview mirror, but considering that windshield is not completely planar glass, it may affect performance, and the possibility of placing it below the car logo.

Why did Lucid select Sagitar?

In this case, there is actually a long-term consideration of LuCID, hard Sims, and the automatic driving system needs to meet the full model assembly needs.

Therefore, the LUCID selection laser radar is high in terms of performance, small volume size, and the space that can be discovered can be large enough.

Therefore, LUCID considers the MEMS laser radar technology route from performance, volume, cost / performance ratio and maturity.

However, it is well known that MEMS is most obvious in cost-controlled advantages, but the performance is difficult to improve.

The difficulty of MEMS is that the signal-to-noise ratio and effective distance and fov are too narrow.

First, the receiving end of the MEMS laser radar receiving is very small, much lower than mechanical laser radar, and signal light emission & reception peak power is proportional to the receiver aperture area, which means that the signal to noise ratio is lowered.

Then, since the MEMS scheme is usually used only a set of laser lights and receiving devices, the signal light power must be much lower than the mechanical laser radar, which results in further decrease in power, which means the decrease in signal-to-noise ratio, but also means effective distance shorten.

The scanning system resolution is determined by the product of the mirror size and the maximum deflection angle, the mirror size and deflection angle are contradictory, the larger the mirror size, the smaller the deflection angle.

Finally, the cost and size of the MEMS spray mirror are also proportional, and the MEMS spray mirror is currently in public information, which can reach 7.5 mm, the price is up to $ 1199.

Sagitar investment Xijing Technology developed MEMS microscopic mirror diameter of 5 mm, has entered a quantification period.

How to solve the problem of laser transmission and reception module and ensure performance problems?

Sagitar gathers invented multi-channel horizontal combined scanning technology.

Its ideas are simple, and 1 digital laser radar is synthesized, and the current Sagitar is created is 5.

Because there are 5 laser radar levels jointly scanned, then the FOV demand for each laser radar is very low, and FOV can be 25 degrees.

In this way, the MEMS spray mirror size can be larger, and performance is a little higher. 5 laser radar levels jointly scanned, equal to 5 times the performance improvement.

Sagitar creating is a patent for this.

Only 3 lasers are drawn in the patent statement, the laser (110) emits laser light, reaching the surface of the vibration mirror (120) is reflected, and the reflection laser is (210), and the reflection laser is rotated, and the reflected laser is (220).

Three lasers are combined into a fan shape.

In order to ensure that there is no blind zone, the edges of the three lasers cover the area will overlap.

There is a angle (421) between the vibration mirror and the horizontal surface, which cannot be 90 degrees, which affects the acceptance of the reflective laser, there will be interference.

Among the actual applications, it is also necessary to add a mirror, as shown in Figs. (510), (530) is a collimated lens, and the collimation lens refers to the collimation of the light from each point from the aperture column into a parallelism. The lens of the light column, that is, Collimating Lens, which is a non-spherical lens, which is a multi-selection of lenses.

Straight lens show

This horizontal combination scanning laser radar, not only broadens the radar’s FOV, which reduces the area requirements of the vibration mirror, improves signal-to-noise ratio and resolution, which is the most important thing to flexibly adjust the ROI region performance of laser radar.

As a sensor, the laser radar is a sensor, the signal-to-noise ratio is the most core indicator, but it is also an independent indicator of the laser radar company.

The signal-to-noise ratio SNR equation of non-coherent laser radar can be expressed as:

As can be seen from the above formula, it is to improve signal-to-noise ratio, the simplest and effective method is to improve signal light power and quantum efficiency. The laser diode supplier also knows this, and the current new laser diode also has a multi-channel laser diode design.

In terms of transmission, Sagitar is still selected by mature EL lasers, but new SIPMs are selected in receiving, the latter is increased by 10 square meters higher than the sensitivity of the APD, that is, the quantum efficiency increases 3 quantities, to improve the system Signal ratio.

At the same time, the single point SIPM used is cleverly bypass the world-oriented puzzle of SIPM Array and SPAD:

Strong snowflake nozzle or even blindness caused by crosstalk.

SIPM is also known as MPPC, i.e., silicon photoelectric tank.

Each silicon photoelectric tube consists of a large number of (several hundred to thousands) single photoelanar diode (SPAD) units, each unit is quenched by a SPAD and a large resistance value, and these differentiates are connected in parallel A face array.

After the silicon photoelectric tube is added to the reverse bias (generally dozens of volts), each microliter SPAD depletion layer has a high electric field.

At this time, if the outside of the photons are playing in, the electronic cavity in the semiconductor will take Compton scatter, and the electronic or holes, high-energy electronics and holes are immediately accelerated, and a large number of secondary electronics and empty Acupoints, ie avalanches.

At this time, the current suddenly becomes large, and the voltage dropped on the quenching resistor R has also become large, the electric field in the SPAD is instantaneously smaller, that is, the SPAD outputs a transient current pulse after the avalanche, different microlume quenching The extinguishing resistance value is the same, so that each membrane will output a large pulse.

Working in Garate mode, the gain can reach 100,000 times, the ordinary APD gain is less than 100 times, and each dimension is a logical unit, and the signal output is “1”, no signal is “0”.

Within the dynamic range of the silicon-optical rendering, it outputs the size of the current and the number of differential metals that have an avalanche, so the overall appearance is an analog device.

SIPM is very close to SPAD, and the SPAD field can be very high, Panasonic, Sony and Canon laboratory have exceeded 1 million pixels, just SPAD maturity is not high.

At present, the sun is more difficult to solve, the evening effect is far better than during the day, and Sony’s backing design can improve, but it takes time to commercialize.

Throwing the technology maturity, the cost of the SPAD is also relatively high.

Inside the SPAD without commercial conditions, the current highest performance receives can only be SIPM.

For laser radar manufacturers, Separate SPAD is simply impossible, and Japanese companies have an overwhelming advantage in this regard, and US companies are good at laboratory development, but it is difficult to commercialize, and Japanese company is good at commercialization.

Sagitar creative level FOV is 120 degrees, namely 5 sectors, 25 degrees per sector, 1 degree overlap in the middle.

The farthest detection is 200 meters, even if there is 150 meters at 10% reflectance, the conventional MEMS laser radar is less than 50 meters or even 30 meters at 10% reflectance.

Excitant M1 laser radar in Lucid is 45 mm, with a depth of 108 mm, a width of 110 mm, quite small.

For the reliability puzzle of the MEMS program, Sagitar Great creation has also found solutions.

2 months ago, Sagitar issued a number of reliability test video, including mechanical shock, random vibration, high and low temperature operation, high pressure water impact test project.

According to the official information, Sagitar is invited to deliver this M1 in December 2020, and also established an annual output of six-digit car grade laser radar automation production line. It is expected that a large-scale mass production in the second quarter of this year. .

This is likely to be the world’s fastest mass delivery high-performance model laser radar.

The task of the perceived part of the automatic driving area is to obtain accurate and reliable 3D environment information. Deep learning is plus single, three mean is unable to complete this task.

The fatal defect of the single and three-mek cameras is that the target recognition (classification) and detection are integral, cannot be divided, must first identify information that can detect the target.

Deep study will definitely have missed inspections, that is, the 3D model is missing.

Because of the awareness of deep learning from its data set, the data set is limited, it is impossible to exhaust all types, so deep learning is prone to mishanding and ignoring front obstacles.

If you cannot identify the target, you will not get distance information, and the system will also think that there is no danger in front of the obstacle, do not do any deceleration, and most of the traverse accidents are this reason. As long as the laser radar is used, the safety has an overwhelming advantage.

It can be said that Lucid, which is added to the laser radar, has a steady to win the Tesla FSD without laser radar.

This is independent of force, the sensor is the most critical source, the source data is not redundant, and the downstream algorithm is doing well.

As laser radar technology matures and cost reduction, the system above L2 will use laser radar, and Tesla is also possible.

From the design of the three-power system, the physical properties of the vehicle are challenged. When the laser radar greatly enhances the automatic driving software performance, the two design have become the secret weapon of Lucid fight Testra.

With the three-electric system design evolution of major cars, many car companies have chosen automatic driving system layouts with laser radar higher-specific, the intelligent electric driving era of the highest expected expectation of human travel and environmental protection is accelerating.

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